Wednesday, October 3, 2012
A. ABSTRACT. Mostly all of the teenagers will face the conflict of identity or identity crisis. There’s a few ways to release or to solve this problem. One of them is youth camp. In youth camp, we can use a lot of activity that can suite to the teenagers and to help them to solve their problems. B. INTRODUCTION In the teenager time, they used to loose or missed their identity. In the free dictionary website, identity describe as the set of behavioral or personal characteristics by which an individual. Meanwhile, psychologist, Erik Erikson has describe identity as, a subjective sense as well as an observable quality of personal sameness and continuity, paired with some belief in the sameness and continuity of some shared world image. As a quality of unself-conscious living, this can be gloriously obvious in a young person who has found himself as he has found his communality. In him we see emerge a unique unification of what is irreversibly given-that is, body type and temperament, giftedness, and vulnerability, infantile, models and acquired ideas-with the open choice provided in available roles, occupational possibilities, values offered, mentors met, friendship made, and first sexual encounters, (Erikson, 1970). Most of these teenagers cannot cope with their own original identity. This will result them to identity crisis. Identity crisis meanwhile is a period of confusion concerning on individual’s sense of self and role in society, which occurs most frequently in the transition from one stage of life to the next. It is often expressed by isolation, negativism, extremism and rebelliousness, as describe by medical dictionary-dictionary online.com. If this crisis occurs, sometimes it will cure by itself, but sometimes we need to find a solution to solve it. There’s a few ways of curing the identity crisis. One of them is the activity during the youth camp. Youth camp is one of the places that we can guide them to the healthy identity. C. ACTIVITIES IN THE YOUTH CAMP. As we all know, youth camp will be the great place for youth. At there, they will learn to live independently. Even though they will stay will their friends and organizer, they will miss our guide at home. Youth Camp also is a great place to cure the identity crisis that they were facing. There’s a lot of activity that can be done to make them life with healthy identity. One of the activities is sport activities. In these activity, teenage will learn about the benefit of the game and want patient to meet up. In this activity, teenager will learn the healthy life. And so on, the teenager will slowly choose the right choice and the identity will slowly remove. Icebreakers also can be very useful activities in the youth camp. When the teenagers going thru the icebreakers session, their mind will open and ready for the next step. They feel calm, and when it is, they will slowly recognize themselves. The next activity is team building activities. Most of the youth camp will do this activity. This is because this activity is challenging and the teenagers can feel it like they are in part of organization. So they will recognize and adapt the healthy identity. And lastly, I will use a little bit of outdoor activities such as canoeing, hiking, horse riding and other activities. These outdoor activities also can contribute in develop the healthy identity. D. THEORIES RELATED TO IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT. The theory of identity development, by Erik Erikson tells us why society function to the development of identity is very important. That why we really need to give a good activity, in order to make them feel that there are already parts of society. The second related theory is Chickering’s Theory of Identity Development. It was a psychosocial theory of how teenagers react in dealing with thinking, feeling, believing, and relating to others. Chickering has stated seven vectors of development that contribute to the formation of identity. The sevens factor are, developing competence, managing emotions, moving through autonomy towards interdependence, developing mature interpersonal relationship, establishing identity, developing purpose and developing integrity. As we can look, all of these vectors are including in all of activity in the youth camp. The next theory is the theory by Marcia, Identity Status Theory. This theory actually continued from the Erik’s theory. James Marcia has come up with four identity statuses This is so important to recognise them. E. SUMMARISE. Based on our discussion as above. That’s show that why we, must take our role in order to develop teenager’s identity. If we didnt do it, they will go more further with their identity crisis. The youth camp organiser or operator also must start thingking outside the box in order to fulfill the camp needs, their expenses and the activities. This is to make sure that there were still a people wanna help them, not to condemn only. Theories-theories in identity also has provide us with a support of details explanation on how to tackle this crisis identity teenagers. F. REFERENCE 1) Ross D. Parke; Mary Gauvain. (2009). Child Psychology, A Contemporary Viewpoint, 7th Edition. McGraw Hill. New York, USA. 2) Dr. Salmi Razali; Adolescent Psychology, First edition. Meteor Doc Sdn Bhd, Malaysia.
Sunday, September 30, 2012
A. ABSTRACT. Sometimes we were confusing about anxiety, whether it was normal or abnormal. We had to confirm the anxiety conditions. With the literature review and the statement from the professional, we will learn how to consider the anxiety conditions. We will also learning what techniques are used to treat or to province specific types of anxiety disorders. And we were also recognizing the actual personnel who will attend people with anxiety disorders. B. INTRODUCTION We, as human beings are always feel the anxiety. The different is only the anxiety was normal or abnormal. Anxiety and fear is not the same thing. Anxiety is a response to unknown threat, internal and vague. It’s normally happen before the exact situation and can be solve or deal with it. Anxiety also provides motivation to individual. For example, you feel anxious about fail the exam; this feeling will provide you motivation as you are trying to avoid fail. C. NORMAL AND ABNORMAL ANXIETY. All individuals will experience anxiety. According to Kaplan and Sadock, anxiety is a diffuse, unpleasant, vague sense of apprehension, often accompanied by autonomic symptoms such as headache, perspiration, palpitations, tightness in the chest, mild stomach discomfort, and restlessness, as indicated by an inability to sit or stand still for long. . Normal anxiety is include individuals experience of many anxiety-provoking first, for example a first date, first day at school, first time travelling away from home and many more. Besides that, taking an exam, getting married and changing jobs also will cause an anxiety. All these situations will create anxiety which is normal and beneficial to the individuals itself. For example, the anxiety you feel when walking in the dark will create more curiosity to you and you will be more alert in that situations. Sigmund Freud, who founded treatment method called Psychoanalysis, describe three types of anxiety which is reality, neurotic and superego or moral. Normal anxiety symptoms is like feeling a slight increase in heartbeat when situations are uncomfortable, insomnia or inability to sleep when you are under stress and infrequent panic or anxiety attacks. Meanwhile, anxiety became abnormal when it is out of proportion to the threat and is more prolonged. The individual became more couches and worry about the threat or the situations. These feelings are accompanied by physical complaints such as elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate, muscle tension, sweating, shaking and many more. This feeling will disrupt daily life. The feeling is not only for the situation, but also to the objects. According to Malaysian Psychiatric Association, Social Anxiety Disorders is the third largest mental health care problem in the world. Research has shown that at any given time, seven out of every one hundred people suffer from this disorder, and thirteen out of a one hundred people will experience it sometime during their life. . According to the Malaysian Psychiatric Association also, anxiety disorders are a group of neurotic disorders where the main focus of the problem is excessive or uncontrolled worry. Anxiety will became abnormal when it was abnormally severe or prolonged, it occur in the absence of stressful circumstances and it was associated with impaired physical, social or occupational functioning. There are few examples of the anxiety disorders which are phobias, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders and etc. We can recognize the anxiety disorders based on the symptoms like worry, fear, feeling shaky, fatigue, and muscles tension, dizzy, vomiting, impatience, difficult to breath, stomach pain and so many more. Caused of the abnormal anxiety is depends on a few of bio-psychosocial factor which is can be explain by using the biological, psychoanalytic and behavioral theories. For example, in biological theories of emotions, an individual will feel the increase in heartbeat, when saw a thief. Meanwhile in psychoanalytic theories is something you gain from the childhood experience. And in the behavioural theories is something that happen in the past but we still strongly remember it, such as we had experience injury during playing football, of course we will remember the incident in our mind once we ready for another match. D. TECHNIQUE USED TO TREAT SPECIFIC TYPES ON ANXIETY DISODER. There are few ways or technique to treat the anxiety. In order to eliminate the anxiety, individuals must select the best treatment for themselves. Individuals has to find and choose the treatment that suit them, they had to try it and of course with proper plan. Example for common treatment for anxiety is medication, herbal, relaxation exercise, regular exercise, psychological treatment for anxiety and many more. On medication, to use anti-anxiety and anti-depressant requires prescription from doctor or qualified psychiatrist. So the patience will receive correct dosage and minimize the risk of the side effects. Meanwhile, herbal is considered as a alternative treatment for anxiety. However, most of the Chinese and native people choose this for thousands of years. Even research also found that it’s cure and no side effects. The other treatment is relaxation exercise. The example of this exercise is Taiji and QiGong. Its can help to relax mind. Otherwise, 30 minute of regular exercise everyday will reduce panic attacks. Psychological treatment for anxiety is one of the common and effective. CBT is Cognitive Behavioural Theory can be used with or without medicine. The Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA) also stated that Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a well established, highly effective and lasting treatment. It focuses on identifying, understanding, changing thinking and behavior patterns. This is the type of therapy that patients are actively involved to their own recovery. It will last long throughout life. Patients will learn skill during therapy session and they must practice for improvement. There are also some tips available on how to treat anxiety disorders mostly the panic attack. The tips are avoiding smoking, caffeine, learn how to control breathing and practice relaxation techniques. But there is no guarantee that this tip is effective. In Open University Malaysia reference book also stated few step to assess the anxiety disorders. First step is to gathering information and history of the patient. We must first recognize current problem. After that we need to find previous and current medical illnesses or intervention hospitalization. We must also include the finding about family history, whether there are anxiety disorder histories among the family members. Later on we will search about previous childhood history. This is important because maybe current situation begin by previous history. Only after that we will look into the patient social history and pre-morbid personality. In order to seek the evidence or to proof that patient has the disorders; we will use Mental State Examination (MSE). With this test, we will recognize the disorders. Besides that, professional psychologist also may use Psychometric Assessment where there were few tools and questionnaires to evaluate further anxiety symptoms. Example of this assessment is State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) which is a self report assessment tool develop by Spielberger and friends. Another assessment is Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) which is a self rated questionnaire which has 21 items develop by Aaron T Beck. Its main function is to differentiate between anxiety and depression. Beside all that, there are also alternative techniques or therapy to treat anxiety disorders this is homeopathy, massage therapy, art, music or dance therapy, dietary supplements or herbal products, acupuncture, yoga and many more. E. CONCLUSION. So the conclusion is, if we are having anxiety in our day life, it is normal, but if we fall into it, there’s problem. Even though we think that the anxiety is normal, but we cannot take it easily. This is because we don’t want it to be abnormal anxiety or anxiety disorder. Even we know that nowadays there’s a lot of qualified psychiatric, a lot of therapy center to entertain our anxiety, but I think it will be better we take care first before it too late. The reason is, if normal anxiety, then it will benefit us, but if it an anxiety disorders, then we will suffer. F. REFERENCE 1) Dr Salmi Razali. (2010). Abnormal Psychology. Meteor Doc. Sdn. Bhd. Selangor, Malaysia. 2) Medical News Today. Available online at www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/anxiety 3) S.Rachman. (2004). Anxiety. 2nd edition. Psychology Press Ltd. UK. 4) Kaplan MD, Harold I and Sadock MD, Benjamin J. (1998). Synopsis of Psychiatry. 8th Edition. Baltimore : Williams and Wilkins. USA. 5) Malaysian Psychiatric Association. Available online at www.psychiatry-malaysia.org 6) David H. Barlow. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders. The Guilford Press. New York, USA.