Thursday, July 28, 2016
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY TABLE OF CONTENTS No. CONTENTS Pages 1. SUMMARY – 1ST ARTICLE. 3 2. SUMMARY – 2ND ARTICLE. 4 3. SUMMARY – 3RD ARTICLE. 5 4. SUMMARY – 4TH ARTICLE. 6 5. REVIEW – 1ST ARTICLE. 7 – 8 6. 7. REVIEW – 2ND ARTICLES. REVIEW – 3RD ARTICLES. 9 10 8. 9. 10. REVIEW – 4TH ARTICLES. SUMMARY. REFERENCES. 10 11 – 12 13 1. SUMMARY – 1ST ARTICLE. Article details: 1. Title : The Applied Cognitive Psychology of Attention: A Step Closer to Understanding Magic Tricks. 2. Author : Irina Demacheva, Martin Ladouceur, Ellis Steinberg, Galina Pogossova and Amir Raz. 3. Publisher : Applied Cognitive Psychology Journal (2012) Published online 12 January 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) This article is a research article of how human react and how a person who done a routine magic trick relate to the Cognitive Psychology of Attention. The research involved over 1000 participants to see how magician working on trick to vanish a pen. The participant is aged between 13 to 90 years old and mostly are the students of the Mc Gill University conceiving 31% men and 69% women. 14% of respondent says they had previously seen the trick with 22% of them know how the magician has perform the trick although 22% of them know the method of the trick but only 37% of them give the correct explanations. Based on this research, they finding suggest that decoupling the when and where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects and also the formulation of an initial explanation may hinder the problem-solving process. 2. SUMMARY – 2ND ARTICLE. Article details: 1. Title : The Effect of Chromaticity Varies With Object Identification Response: Speeded Naming versus Recognition. 2. Author : Carolyn S. Ryan, Nancy S. Hemmes and Bruce L. Brown 3. Publisher : The Psychological Record Journal (2003) Published online in Academic Search Complete via OUM Digital Library. This is the research of how participants react to the effect of color, object and its size with three experiment in order to know how participants react when presence versus absence experiment and relate result with the cognitive psychology theory of recognition. The variety of discrimination response have been used previously in order to know how it will affect the human recognition experiment such as naming, speeding naming, verification and classification responses. The participant is 32 university undergraduates student ranging from 17 to 52 years old with 21 female and 11 were male. They were given three experiments in order to find out the chromaticity. The results have implications for the nature of the representations that mediate different forms of object identification responding. The cognitive and behavioral interpretations in the proceeding to several of object identification process. 3. SUMMARY – 3RD ARTICLE. Article details: 1. Title : An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning Complex Cognitive Tasks. 2. Author : Fred Paas, John Sweller. 3. Publisher : Educ Psychol Rev (2012). Published online on 6 September 2011 at Springerlink.com This article is briefly explains of the evolution of the new era of cognitive theory by using the human motor system to deal with the complex cognitive tasks. Cognitive load theory is to provide instruction strategies based on previous experiment. This process is based on the human memory, which is limitation due to changes in long-term memory while learning. So the working memory in need for amendment. These limitations occur as human brain working memory will not automatically evolve to acquire. This working memory will reduced during acquiring novel information as it has evolved to process, known as biologically primary information. In this article, they had suggests several cognitive load effects to be used to facilitate the acquisition of biologically secondary knowledge. Besides that, they also indicate how human cognitive architecture can provide cognitive load researchers with novel perspectives of their findings and discussion. 4. SUMMARY – 4TH ARTICLE. Article details: 1. Title : Revolution in the Cognitive Psychology of Development. 2. Author : Elena A. Sergienko 3. Publisher : Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2009. In this article, the author has generalized the recent revolutionary changes in the cognitive psychology of development, with the touching of the basic concept of psychology. She also discussed about the problem of theoretical changes connected with systemic evolutionary approach, dynamic nonlinear system theory and connectionism. There are four basic of revolutionary changes which is are; sensory-motor infant to representative one; from the leading roles of the activity to the unity of perception and action; about the continuity of the subject formation, instead of axiom of subjectivity of the adult, mature person; about the continuance of genetic and environmental instead of social primary in the mental development of a person. 5. REVIEW – 1ST ARTICLE. A. Theoretical Framework. The authors in this article are using a lot of theories in order to relate it with the experiment. For example, the authors has quoted a phrase from Barnhart, 2010; Hergovich, 2004; Kuhn & Land, 2006; Over the past decade, empirical studies have increasingly yoked magic-the art of producing illusions by sleight of hand-and cognitive science. And then the authors also quote a phrase that against the first phrase which is are, some scholars argue that magic can only serve cognitive science as a methodological tool. The authors has done a good work in this theoretical issue as they selected the oldest and most central issues in psychological science – the magical arts bind attention. This definitely related to the applied cognitive psychology of attention. B. Research Methodology. The authors have selected mostly a student from McGill University, Montreal, Canada as their research participants. The remaining were friends and acquaintances of the former group. They used a large number of participants which is 1003 person. Meanwhile on the materials aspect, they have used special cognitive parameters – LimeSurvey online application survey tool. Complete with demographic question, audiovisual clip and specific questions. And then they used mute video clip displayed the magician action. And the last part in methodology is data analysis. Once again they have used a software to performed the statistical analysis which is a software is Statistical Analysis Software version 9.2. The complied and collect the data extensively including the linear and logistic regression to determine the predictors. C. RESULTS. The authors compiled the results equal to percentage. It was a bit complicated to understand as they used the reversed style result explanation. The authors also include confirmatory analysis in the result section which is divided into correctness of explanations and changing the explanations. D. DISCUSSION. The authors have provided very good explanations in this section with including a few graph, regression table and a brief discussion regards the experiment. E. CONCLUSION. Quite amazingly, in this section, the authors provide quite simple conclusion with less than 200 words. 6. REVIEW – 2ND ARTICLES. A. Theoretical Framework. The authors of this article are not using too many theories, but the selected theories are not so related and most of them quite ancient. B. Research Methodology. The authors have done three experiments in this article. Each experiment has its own research methodology. But the explanation of the method is too long. Even they had used several software such as Corel Draw, but it was not suitable for ordinary readers like me. The authors also include some pictures which is good. Meanwhile in the result section, they provide result in percentage with attached graph bar. C. Discussion. The general discussion were briefly explain with metric system and other related parameters. 7. REVIEW – 3RD ARTICLES. This article is not a research report or experiment report, it was an article report regarding the relation between cognitive load theory with human motor system in order to support the learning of complex cognitive tasks. The authors had divided the article in few sections which is abstract, introduction, the collective working memory effect, human memory effect, embodied cognition, discussion and conclusions. The authors are combining the newest theory with the ancient theory. It was a quite good article even though it was quite long and no attractive figure such as picture, graph bar or else. 8. REVIEW – 4TH ARTICLES. This article also was a report of combining a theory, hypothesis and thesis in order to explain the revolution in the cognitive psychology of development. It’s also combining between domestic researches (Russia) with international research (World). There is also no differentiate section, only the abstract, full report and then the references. Even though the author has divided by paragraph, but it still confusing and not tidy. 9. SUMMARY. After going thru the entire article, I found out that the best article is the research article with including experiment or questionnaire. So it will be the 1st and the 2nd article was very good to me. But if the report article is presented with some attractive added such as pictures, graph, map, bar or etc, it will also be interesting too. In the matters of abstract, all four articles had provided it. Abstract is important as the readers may need a little summary of that article before decided to read it. Next section is introduction; the 1st, 2nd and 3rd article had its introduction section, while the 4th article had not. Introduction is important as an “ice-breaking” for readers. If there is no introduction or the introduction was not separated, it will give nothing more than a confusing to the readers. Then we go to the content area. For me, all the article had provide a very good content, with combining the newest theory with the ancient theory or even using the still most relevant ancient theory. A lot of theories is good for readers to really understand the authors perspective. The 1st and 2nd article had shown to us how current technology can help the researchers, not only in science stream, but also can be used in human science. They had used several software to assist their research such as; CorelDraw and LimeSurvey, which I think is impressive for the new era of psychological research. The selection of the research methodology concept also was very good. In 3rd and 4th article which is not in research method, their authors also briefly explain in details about their subject. And now we are into the discussion, summary or conclusion part. In my opinion, all of first three article has provide the good summary except for the 4th article when the author doesn’t separated the conclusion with content, only separated with paragraph. Even though the summary for the 3rd article is too long, but it is still acceptable for me. And lastly we go for the references section. What I found was the entire article chosen has provided a very good reference. References are important as we are to avoid plagiarism and to honored previous researchers. No matter how good or bad, our report must came from ourselves, not by plagiarism, agree? 10. REFERENCES. 1. Lim Thong, Dr Rozainee, 2012. Cognitive Psychology. Meteor Doc. Sdn. Bhd. For OUM, Seri Kembangan, Selangor. 2. Irina Demacheva, Martin Ladouceur, Ellis Steinberg, Galina Pogossova, Amir Raz, 2012. The Applied Cognitive Psychology of Attention: A Step Closer to Understanding Magic Tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, Published online 12 January 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). 3. Carolyn S. Ryan, Nancy S. Hemmes, Bruce L. Brown, 2003. The Effect of Chromaticity Varies with Object Identification Response: Speeded Naming versus Recognition. The Psychological Record. 4. Fred Paas, John Sweller, 2011. An Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory: Using the Human Motor System and Collaboration to Support the Learning of Complex Cognitive Tasks. Educ. Psychol. Rev. Publish online at Springerlink.com 5. Elene A. Sergienko, 2009. Revolution in the Cognitive Psychology of Development. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art.
Monday, July 25, 2016
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Wednesday, October 3, 2012
A. ABSTRACT. Mostly all of the teenagers will face the conflict of identity or identity crisis. There’s a few ways to release or to solve this problem. One of them is youth camp. In youth camp, we can use a lot of activity that can suite to the teenagers and to help them to solve their problems. B. INTRODUCTION In the teenager time, they used to loose or missed their identity. In the free dictionary website, identity describe as the set of behavioral or personal characteristics by which an individual. Meanwhile, psychologist, Erik Erikson has describe identity as, a subjective sense as well as an observable quality of personal sameness and continuity, paired with some belief in the sameness and continuity of some shared world image. As a quality of unself-conscious living, this can be gloriously obvious in a young person who has found himself as he has found his communality. In him we see emerge a unique unification of what is irreversibly given-that is, body type and temperament, giftedness, and vulnerability, infantile, models and acquired ideas-with the open choice provided in available roles, occupational possibilities, values offered, mentors met, friendship made, and first sexual encounters, (Erikson, 1970). Most of these teenagers cannot cope with their own original identity. This will result them to identity crisis. Identity crisis meanwhile is a period of confusion concerning on individual’s sense of self and role in society, which occurs most frequently in the transition from one stage of life to the next. It is often expressed by isolation, negativism, extremism and rebelliousness, as describe by medical dictionary-dictionary online.com. If this crisis occurs, sometimes it will cure by itself, but sometimes we need to find a solution to solve it. There’s a few ways of curing the identity crisis. One of them is the activity during the youth camp. Youth camp is one of the places that we can guide them to the healthy identity. C. ACTIVITIES IN THE YOUTH CAMP. As we all know, youth camp will be the great place for youth. At there, they will learn to live independently. Even though they will stay will their friends and organizer, they will miss our guide at home. Youth Camp also is a great place to cure the identity crisis that they were facing. There’s a lot of activity that can be done to make them life with healthy identity. One of the activities is sport activities. In these activity, teenage will learn about the benefit of the game and want patient to meet up. In this activity, teenager will learn the healthy life. And so on, the teenager will slowly choose the right choice and the identity will slowly remove. Icebreakers also can be very useful activities in the youth camp. When the teenagers going thru the icebreakers session, their mind will open and ready for the next step. They feel calm, and when it is, they will slowly recognize themselves. The next activity is team building activities. Most of the youth camp will do this activity. This is because this activity is challenging and the teenagers can feel it like they are in part of organization. So they will recognize and adapt the healthy identity. And lastly, I will use a little bit of outdoor activities such as canoeing, hiking, horse riding and other activities. These outdoor activities also can contribute in develop the healthy identity. D. THEORIES RELATED TO IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT. The theory of identity development, by Erik Erikson tells us why society function to the development of identity is very important. That why we really need to give a good activity, in order to make them feel that there are already parts of society. The second related theory is Chickering’s Theory of Identity Development. It was a psychosocial theory of how teenagers react in dealing with thinking, feeling, believing, and relating to others. Chickering has stated seven vectors of development that contribute to the formation of identity. The sevens factor are, developing competence, managing emotions, moving through autonomy towards interdependence, developing mature interpersonal relationship, establishing identity, developing purpose and developing integrity. As we can look, all of these vectors are including in all of activity in the youth camp. The next theory is the theory by Marcia, Identity Status Theory. This theory actually continued from the Erik’s theory. James Marcia has come up with four identity statuses This is so important to recognise them. E. SUMMARISE. Based on our discussion as above. That’s show that why we, must take our role in order to develop teenager’s identity. If we didnt do it, they will go more further with their identity crisis. The youth camp organiser or operator also must start thingking outside the box in order to fulfill the camp needs, their expenses and the activities. This is to make sure that there were still a people wanna help them, not to condemn only. Theories-theories in identity also has provide us with a support of details explanation on how to tackle this crisis identity teenagers. F. REFERENCE 1) Ross D. Parke; Mary Gauvain. (2009). Child Psychology, A Contemporary Viewpoint, 7th Edition. McGraw Hill. New York, USA. 2) Dr. Salmi Razali; Adolescent Psychology, First edition. Meteor Doc Sdn Bhd, Malaysia.
Sunday, September 30, 2012
A. ABSTRACT. Sometimes we were confusing about anxiety, whether it was normal or abnormal. We had to confirm the anxiety conditions. With the literature review and the statement from the professional, we will learn how to consider the anxiety conditions. We will also learning what techniques are used to treat or to province specific types of anxiety disorders. And we were also recognizing the actual personnel who will attend people with anxiety disorders. B. INTRODUCTION We, as human beings are always feel the anxiety. The different is only the anxiety was normal or abnormal. Anxiety and fear is not the same thing. Anxiety is a response to unknown threat, internal and vague. It’s normally happen before the exact situation and can be solve or deal with it. Anxiety also provides motivation to individual. For example, you feel anxious about fail the exam; this feeling will provide you motivation as you are trying to avoid fail. C. NORMAL AND ABNORMAL ANXIETY. All individuals will experience anxiety. According to Kaplan and Sadock, anxiety is a diffuse, unpleasant, vague sense of apprehension, often accompanied by autonomic symptoms such as headache, perspiration, palpitations, tightness in the chest, mild stomach discomfort, and restlessness, as indicated by an inability to sit or stand still for long. . Normal anxiety is include individuals experience of many anxiety-provoking first, for example a first date, first day at school, first time travelling away from home and many more. Besides that, taking an exam, getting married and changing jobs also will cause an anxiety. All these situations will create anxiety which is normal and beneficial to the individuals itself. For example, the anxiety you feel when walking in the dark will create more curiosity to you and you will be more alert in that situations. Sigmund Freud, who founded treatment method called Psychoanalysis, describe three types of anxiety which is reality, neurotic and superego or moral. Normal anxiety symptoms is like feeling a slight increase in heartbeat when situations are uncomfortable, insomnia or inability to sleep when you are under stress and infrequent panic or anxiety attacks. Meanwhile, anxiety became abnormal when it is out of proportion to the threat and is more prolonged. The individual became more couches and worry about the threat or the situations. These feelings are accompanied by physical complaints such as elevated blood pressure, increased heart rate, muscle tension, sweating, shaking and many more. This feeling will disrupt daily life. The feeling is not only for the situation, but also to the objects. According to Malaysian Psychiatric Association, Social Anxiety Disorders is the third largest mental health care problem in the world. Research has shown that at any given time, seven out of every one hundred people suffer from this disorder, and thirteen out of a one hundred people will experience it sometime during their life. . According to the Malaysian Psychiatric Association also, anxiety disorders are a group of neurotic disorders where the main focus of the problem is excessive or uncontrolled worry. Anxiety will became abnormal when it was abnormally severe or prolonged, it occur in the absence of stressful circumstances and it was associated with impaired physical, social or occupational functioning. There are few examples of the anxiety disorders which are phobias, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders and etc. We can recognize the anxiety disorders based on the symptoms like worry, fear, feeling shaky, fatigue, and muscles tension, dizzy, vomiting, impatience, difficult to breath, stomach pain and so many more. Caused of the abnormal anxiety is depends on a few of bio-psychosocial factor which is can be explain by using the biological, psychoanalytic and behavioral theories. For example, in biological theories of emotions, an individual will feel the increase in heartbeat, when saw a thief. Meanwhile in psychoanalytic theories is something you gain from the childhood experience. And in the behavioural theories is something that happen in the past but we still strongly remember it, such as we had experience injury during playing football, of course we will remember the incident in our mind once we ready for another match. D. TECHNIQUE USED TO TREAT SPECIFIC TYPES ON ANXIETY DISODER. There are few ways or technique to treat the anxiety. In order to eliminate the anxiety, individuals must select the best treatment for themselves. Individuals has to find and choose the treatment that suit them, they had to try it and of course with proper plan. Example for common treatment for anxiety is medication, herbal, relaxation exercise, regular exercise, psychological treatment for anxiety and many more. On medication, to use anti-anxiety and anti-depressant requires prescription from doctor or qualified psychiatrist. So the patience will receive correct dosage and minimize the risk of the side effects. Meanwhile, herbal is considered as a alternative treatment for anxiety. However, most of the Chinese and native people choose this for thousands of years. Even research also found that it’s cure and no side effects. The other treatment is relaxation exercise. The example of this exercise is Taiji and QiGong. Its can help to relax mind. Otherwise, 30 minute of regular exercise everyday will reduce panic attacks. Psychological treatment for anxiety is one of the common and effective. CBT is Cognitive Behavioural Theory can be used with or without medicine. The Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA) also stated that Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a well established, highly effective and lasting treatment. It focuses on identifying, understanding, changing thinking and behavior patterns. This is the type of therapy that patients are actively involved to their own recovery. It will last long throughout life. Patients will learn skill during therapy session and they must practice for improvement. There are also some tips available on how to treat anxiety disorders mostly the panic attack. The tips are avoiding smoking, caffeine, learn how to control breathing and practice relaxation techniques. But there is no guarantee that this tip is effective. In Open University Malaysia reference book also stated few step to assess the anxiety disorders. First step is to gathering information and history of the patient. We must first recognize current problem. After that we need to find previous and current medical illnesses or intervention hospitalization. We must also include the finding about family history, whether there are anxiety disorder histories among the family members. Later on we will search about previous childhood history. This is important because maybe current situation begin by previous history. Only after that we will look into the patient social history and pre-morbid personality. In order to seek the evidence or to proof that patient has the disorders; we will use Mental State Examination (MSE). With this test, we will recognize the disorders. Besides that, professional psychologist also may use Psychometric Assessment where there were few tools and questionnaires to evaluate further anxiety symptoms. Example of this assessment is State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) which is a self report assessment tool develop by Spielberger and friends. Another assessment is Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) which is a self rated questionnaire which has 21 items develop by Aaron T Beck. Its main function is to differentiate between anxiety and depression. Beside all that, there are also alternative techniques or therapy to treat anxiety disorders this is homeopathy, massage therapy, art, music or dance therapy, dietary supplements or herbal products, acupuncture, yoga and many more. E. CONCLUSION. So the conclusion is, if we are having anxiety in our day life, it is normal, but if we fall into it, there’s problem. Even though we think that the anxiety is normal, but we cannot take it easily. This is because we don’t want it to be abnormal anxiety or anxiety disorder. Even we know that nowadays there’s a lot of qualified psychiatric, a lot of therapy center to entertain our anxiety, but I think it will be better we take care first before it too late. The reason is, if normal anxiety, then it will benefit us, but if it an anxiety disorders, then we will suffer. F. REFERENCE 1) Dr Salmi Razali. (2010). Abnormal Psychology. Meteor Doc. Sdn. Bhd. Selangor, Malaysia. 2) Medical News Today. Available online at www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/anxiety 3) S.Rachman. (2004). Anxiety. 2nd edition. Psychology Press Ltd. UK. 4) Kaplan MD, Harold I and Sadock MD, Benjamin J. (1998). Synopsis of Psychiatry. 8th Edition. Baltimore : Williams and Wilkins. USA. 5) Malaysian Psychiatric Association. Available online at www.psychiatry-malaysia.org 6) David H. Barlow. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders. The Guilford Press. New York, USA.